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You should be able to apply what you learn here to relational databases in a business setting. Overview The first 14 days of this book show you how to use SQL to incorporate the power of modern relational databases into your code. By the end of Week 1, you will be able to use basic SQL commands to retrieve selected data. If you are familiar with the basics and history of SQL, we suggest you skim the first week's chapters and begin in earnest with Day 8, "Manipulating Data.
You don't need access to any of these products to use this book--it can stand alone as an SQL syntax reference.
However, using one of these platforms and walking though the examples will help you understand the nuances. Conventions Used in This Book This book uses the following typeface conventions: For example, File Open means "select the Open option from the File menu.
Output appears in standard monospace. The following special design features enhance the text: Notes explain interesting or important points that can help you understand SQL concepts and techniques. Tips are little pieces of information to begin to help you in real-world situations. Tips often offer shortcuts or information to make a task easier or faster. Warnings provide information about detrimental performance issues or dangerous errors. Pay careful attention to Warnings. The first statement you learn about is the SELECT statement, which enables you to retrieve data from the database based on various user-specified options.
Many examples help you understand these important topics. The content of the examples should be useful and interesting to a broad group of readers. The initials stand for Structured Query Language, and the language itself is often referred to as "sequel. Nonprocedural means what rather than how. For example, SQL describes what data to retrieve, delete, or insert, rather than how to perform the operation.
Set oriented means that SQL processes sets of data in groups. Although these standard-making bodies prepare standards for database system designers to follow, all database products differ from the ANSI standard to some degree.
In addition, most systems provide some proprietary extensions to SQL that extend the language into a true procedural language. We have used various RDBMSs to prepare the examples in this book to give you an idea of what to expect from the common database systems.
An Introduction. Database systems store information in every conceivable business environment. From large tracking databases such as airline reservation systems to a child's baseball card collection, database systems store and distribute the data that we depend on. Until the last few years, large database systems could be run only on large mainframe computers. These machines have traditionally been expensive to design, download, and maintain. However, today's generation of powerful, inexpensive workstation computers enables programmers to design software that maintains and distributes data quickly and inexpensively.
Codd in SQL evolved to service the concepts of the relational database model. Codd defined 13 rules, oddly enough referred to as Codd's 12 Rules, for the relational model: A relational DBMS must be able to manage databases entirely through its relational capabilities. Information rule-- All information in a relational database including table and column names is represented explicitly as values in tables. Guaranteed access--Every value in a relational database is guaranteed to be accessible by using a combination of the table name, primary key value, and column name.
Systematic null value support--The DBMS provides systematic support for the treatment of null values unknown or inapplicable data , distinct from default values, and independent of any domain. Active, online relational catalog--The description of the database and its contents is represented at the logical level as tables and can therefore be queried using the database language. Comprehensive data sublanguage--At least one supported language must have a well-defined syntax and be comprehensive.
It must support data definition, manipulation, integrity rules, authorization, and transactions.
View updating rule--All views that are theoretically updatable can be updated through the system. Set-level insertion, update, and deletion--The DBMS supports not only set- level retrievals but also set-level inserts, updates, and deletes. Physical data independence--Application programs and ad hoc programs are logically unaffected when physical access methods or storage structures are altered. Logical data independence--Application programs and ad hoc programs are logically unaffected, to the extent possible, when changes are made to the table structures.
Integrity independence--The database language must be capable of defining integrity rules. They must be stored in the online catalog, and they cannot be bypassed. Distribution independence--Application programs and ad hoc requests are logically unaffected when data is first distributed or when it is redistributed.
Nonsubversion--It must not be possible to bypass the integrity rules defined through the database language by using lower-level languages. See Figure 1. Figure 1. Codd's relational database management system. This method has several advantages and many disadvantages. In its favor is the fact that the physical structure of data on a disk becomes unimportant. The programmer simply stores pointers to the next location, so data can be accessed in this manner.
Also, data can be added and deleted easily. However, different groups of information could not be easily joined to form new information. The format of the data on the disk could not be arbitrarily changed after the database was created. Doing so would require the creation of a new database structure.
Codd's idea for an RDBMS uses the mathematical concepts of relational algebra to break down data into sets and related common subsets. Because information can naturally be grouped into distinct sets, Dr. Codd organized his database system around this concept. Under the relational model, data is separated into sets that resemble a table structure.
This table structure consists of individual data elements called columns or fields.
A single set of a group of fields is known as a record or row. For instance, to create a relational database consisting of employee data, you might start with a table called EMPLOYEE that contains the following pieces of information: Their support made working on this book possible. Stephens Ryan K.
Hundreds of programs later, Ryan became a database administrator. He currently works for Unisys Federal Systems, where he is responsible for government-owned databases throughout the United States. He also serves part-time as a programmer for the Indiana Army National Guard. Along with Ron Plew and two others, Ryan owns a U.
Some of his interests include active sports, chess, nature, and writing. Ronald R. Plew Ronald R. Plew is a database administrator for Unisys Federal Systems. Ron also serves as a programmer for the Indiana Army National Guard.
His hobbies include collecting Indy racing memorabilia. He also owns and operates Plew's Indy Museum. He lives in Indianapolis with his wife, Linda. He lives in Navarre, Florida, with his wife, Becky, and their daughter, Emma. He has been a program manager, team leader, project lead, technical lead, and analyst. A graduate of the United States Air Force Academy, he is a veteran with more than 2, hours of flying time as a navigator and bombardier in the B